How to use nginx as reverse proxy on ubuntu 20.04

How to use nginx as reverse proxy on ubuntu 20.04

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Introduction

Nginx is open-source software program that’s standard worldwide for its web-serving options. Initially, it was designed because the quickest and most secure webserver. In a while, its options included caching, reverse proxy, load balancing, media streaming, and far more. What makes Nginx standard among the many high internet servers? Its excessive efficiency and fast secure loading make it a coronary heart favourite of proxy customers.

This weblog will educate you concerning the unique options of Nginx. Additional, find out how to use Nginx reverse proxy for 2 completely different apps utilizing two subdomains. We may even focus on the process to arrange the Nginx reverse proxy by way of native decision. It would enable you to create a mirror setup immediately. For higher and fast understanding, we’ll use the HTTP tutorial. However the customers can even use the identical configuration setup for HTTPS.

For growing a static internet server, SimpleHTTPServer- a product of Pathon will probably be used. Equally, we’ll use Python to develop dynamic new apps.

Nginx –the quickest web-server

Earlier than shifting to the principle matter, it’s crucial to take a look on the Nginx options as an internet server.

Nginx is the open-source internet server that’s standard and broadly used amongst high-traffic websites. Essentially the most intensive web sites like NASA, WordPress.com, and Netflix are additionally the customers of Nginx.

Nginx makes use of an asynchronous mechanism that makes it extra favorable. This mechanism makes use of a single thread to deal with the requests. Thus, it makes use of low reminiscence and is very concurrent. As Nginx is asynchronous, it easily handles plentiful requests with out blocking or slowing down the websites.

Nginx has wider functions within the internet serving world like:

  • IPv6
  • Load balancing
  • Media Streaming
  • Quick CGI help with caching
  • Reverse proxy with caching
  • Handles static recordsdata, index recordsdata, and creation of the auto-index

Nginx is a various internet server that serves the IT world surprisingly. You probably have not used it but, strive a few of its options.

System necessities

For the customers’ understanding, now we have been utilizing BitLaunch Ubuntu 20.04 LTS VPS for Nginx reverse proxy classes. You may get linked to your VPS by way of Putty or some other SSH consumer servers. Nevertheless, any new Unbuntu server can be used utilizing the given instructions within the tutorial.

Methods to Put together the servers?

Earlier than the set up of Nginx, it’s crucial to organize the server for modifications within the setup.  Firstly, we have to replace the native package deal index. If any outdated package deal exits, there’s a must improve it to maneuver additional.

In any other case, Nginx reverse proxy could not get put in or work correctly.

$ apt-get replace

Hit:1 http://safety.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-security InRelease

Hit:2 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal InRelease

Hit:3 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-updates InRelease

Hit:4 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-backports InRelease

Studying package deal lists... Executed

 

$ apt-get -y improve

Studying package deal lists... Executed

Constructing dependency tree      

Studying state data... Executed

Calculating improve... Executed

The next packages have been mechanically put in and are not required:

....

....

 

Set up Nginx Server

Nginx is among the many default repositories of Unbuntu. So, the customers needn’t add exterior repositories. All these repositories observe the mirror of the official variations. For the newest and true repository, it’s higher to satisfy the necessities of Nginx Set up and paperwork.

When the server is ready, it’s time to set up the Nginx package deal by way of the apt package deal supervisor. For the Nginx set up, you possibly can watch an in depth technique on the Nginx set up tutorial.

$ apt set up -y Nginx

Studying package deal lists... Executed

Constructing dependency tree      

Studying state data... Executed

....

....

Confirm & configure Nginx Model

Because the set up will get accomplished, the consumer must confirm the Nginx model. Additional, it additionally calls for configuration with the -V flag.

$ nginx -V
nginx model: nginx/1.17.10 (Ubuntu)

constructed with OpenSSL 1.1.1f  31 Mar 2020

TLS SNI help enabled

configure arguments: --with-cc-opt="-g -O2 -fdebug-prefix-map=/construct/nginx-Pmk9_C/nginx-1.17.10=. -fstack-protector-strong -

....

....

Entry the exterior server by configuring a Firewall

At this level, if you wish to permit exterior entry to your server, permit port 80. If you’re not , skip this course of.

$ sudo ufw permit 80

Set up Python and HTTPie

Lastly, at this step, we’re able to create two apps. To develop the apps, we’ll use the Python platform. as described earlier, Python is the default repository. So, the method will proceed easily.

We’ll use Python to create our two apps, so let’s set up the required packages. Python is included within the default package deal repositories.

$ apt set up -y python

Right here, the system will ask for verification and testing. You need to use HTTPie or Curl.

$ apt set up -y httpie

Make Certain NGINX Begins After Boot

You want to allow Nginx to begin after boot. Give a command to the system that after booting you want Nginx begin.

$ sudo systemctl allow nginx

Synchronizing state of nginx.service with SysV service script with /lib/systemd/systemd-sysv-install.

Executing: /lib/systemd/systemd-sysv-install allow nginx

 

Begin NGINX Server

Right here the system is able to begin the Nginx server.

$ systemctl begin nginx

Methods to create two Apps utilizing two domains?

Now, we’re going to develop two apps utilizing two domains. On this means, you possibly can check your setup as nicely. For this objective, we’ll use the Python platform and its module SimpleHTTPServer. Python’s SimpleHTTPServer is a static internet server that can’t be used for improvement functions. Nevertheless, it is a superb instrument for testing the companies.

Service A

Create the Content material for App A

Comply with the given instructions to attain the objective.

$ mkdir appA
$ cd appA
$ cat <<EOF >index.html

that is app A !

EOF

Begin the Internet Server for App A

Within the command window, “&” is talked about. It permits the entire course of to run within the background and you need to use the shell for different functions. As an illustration, a shell can have prints of STDOUT logs.

For Python 2

$ python -m SimpleHTTPServer 3000 &
$ Serving HTTP on 0.0.0.0 port 3000 ...

For Python 3

$ python3 -m http.server 3000 &

Serving HTTP on 0.0.0.0 port 3000 (http://0.0.0.0:3000/) …

Check App A

The app content material is able to tets by way of HTTPie-http consumer.

$ http http://localhost:3000
127.0.0.1 - - [24/May/2020 13:30:59] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 -

HTTP/1.0 200 OK

Content material-Size: 16

Content material-type: textual content/html

Date: Solar, 24 Might 2020 13:30:59 GMT

Final-Modified: Solar, 24 Might 2020 13:28:42 GMT

Server: SimpleHTTP/0.6 Python/2.7.18rc1

 

that is app A !

It really works amazingly. You may observe all content material of App A on port 3000.

Service B

Create the Content material for App B

$ mkdir appB
$ cd appB
$ cat <<EOF >index.html

that is app B !

EOF

Begin the Internet Server for App B

Once more, within the command window, “&” is talked about. It permits the entire course of to run within the background and you need to use the shell for different functions. As an illustration, the shell can have prints of STDOUT logs.

For Python 2

$ python -m SimpleHTTPServer 4000 &
$ Serving HTTP on 0.0.0.0 port 4000 ...

For Python 3

$ python3 -m http.server 4000 &

Serving HTTP on 0.0.0.0 port 4000 (http://0.0.0.0:4000/) …

 

Check App B

Now, you possibly can check your app B by way of HTTPie http consumer.

$ http http://localhost:4000

127.0.0.1 – – [24/May/2020 13:39:18] “GET / HTTP/1.1” 200 –

HTTP/1.0 200 OK

Content material-Size: 16

Content material-type: textual content/html

Date: Solar, 24 Might 2020 13:39:18 GMT

Final-Modified: Solar, 24 Might 2020 13:38:23 GMT

Server: SimpleHTTP/0.6 Python/2.7.18rc1

 

that is app B !

Excellent! You may observe all content material of App B on port 4000.

Methods to setup Nginx Reverse Proxy utilizing Native decision

To distinguish two apps, it’s crucial to make use of two completely different domains. You need to use any faux or supposed area like area.com. It may be just like the given beneath:

  • For App A:area.com
  • For App B:area.com

 

The system will ask for the 2 entries earlier than the DNS decision. Right here, it is advisable develop within the /and so forth/hosts file.

$ sudo cat <<EOF >> /and so forth/hosts

127.0.0.1 appa.area.com

127.0.0.1 appb.area.com

EOF

Methods to configure NGINX as a Reverse Proxy Server

When you’ve custom-made the setup and set up python and HTTPie, the system is able to configure Nginx as a Reverse Proxy. The Host header regulates the kind of request as per the webserver. In easier phrases, the Nginx configuration determines {that a} sure kind of request must cross to a sure internet server. Thus, customers can easily use the Nginx reverse proxies.

Right here is the necessity to delete the default configuration symlink on the enables-sites.

$ rm /and so forth/nginx/sites-enabled/default

Then create the configuration file on the accessible under-sites:

$ contact /and so forth/nginx/sites-available/reverse-proxy

Create the brand new symlink on the enables-under websites:

$ ln -s /and so forth/nginx/sites-available/reverse-proxy /and so forth/nginx/sites-enabled/reverse-proxy

Select the specified editor (nano or some other editor) and edit the configuration file:

$ nano /and so forth/nginx/sites-available/reverse-proxy

Right here now we have fulfilled all necessities to configure the reverse proxy. Nginx server makes use of and prefers the upstream module. The upstream modules are used for load balancing. However there are different strategies additionally.

Lastly, command the given statements into nano or the specified editor and exit utilizing Ctrl-X.

upstream appA {

        server 127.0.0.1:3000;

}


upstream appB {

        server 127.0.0.1:4000;

}


server {

  pay attention 80;

  server_name appa.area.com;


  location / {

        proxy_pass http://appA;

    }

}


server {

  pay attention 80;

  server_name appb.area.com;




  location / {

        proxy_pass http://appB;

    }

}

 

To sum up the process, each upstream options outline app A and app B. One is proven on port 3000 and the opposite one in port 4000. Server directive and area title are the principle configuration titles. The Host header is used to find out the subdomains and upstream mapping.

Check the Nginx Reverse proxy Configuration

To finish the process flawlessly, it’s higher to evaluate the Nginx Reverse proxy configuration.

In case you don’t check the configuration, it could trigger points in load balancing and different functioning of the server. In easier phrases, if in case you have a non-valid configuration, the server could have extra downtime after a restart. IT consultants advise the Nginx customers to tets the reverse proxy configuration to keep away from delay time.

$ sudo nginx -t

nginx: the configuration file /and so forth/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is okay

nginx: configuration file /and so forth/nginx/nginx.conf check is profitable

Reload NGINX Server

First, reload the nginx internet server. It would assist to indicate all new configurations.

$ sudo systemctl reload nginx

Test the standing of the NGINX Server

You may verify the standing of the Nginx server utilizing the given instructions.

$ sudo systemctl standing nginx
     Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/nginx.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)

     Energetic: energetic (working) since Solar 2020-05-24 13:16:41 UTC; 3min 16s in the past

       Docs: man:nginx(8)

    Course of: 3525 ExecReload=/usr/sbin/nginx -g daemon on; master_process on; -s reload (code=exited, standing=0/SUCCESS)

   Important PID: 3331 (nginx)

      Duties: 2 (restrict: 614)

     Reminiscence: 4.2M

     CGroup: /system.slice/nginx.service

             ├─3331 nginx: grasp course of /usr/sbin/nginx -g daemon on; master_process on;

             └─3526 nginx: employee course of




Might 24 13:16:41 5eca7132aa8cc30001a9eb8b systemd[1]: Beginning A excessive efficiency internet server and a reverse proxy server...

Might 24 13:16:41 5eca7132aa8cc30001a9eb8b systemd[1]: Began A excessive efficiency internet server and a reverse proxy server.

Might 24 13:19:38 5eca7132aa8cc30001a9eb8b systemd[1]: Reloading A excessive efficiency internet server and a reverse proxy server.

Might 24 13:19:38 5eca7132aa8cc30001a9eb8b systemd[1]: Reloaded A excessive efficiency internet server and a reverse proxy server.

Confirm the setup

It’s time to see the outcomes of your wrestle. Check the 2 apps and the validity of the Nginx configuration. For this objective, the requests will proceed from HTTP client-HTTPie. HTTPie will ahead a request to appa.area.com and appb.area.com. If the right internet server reveals the specified app content material, it reveals your success.

App A

Ship an HTTP request to host appa.area.com

You may see the app A content material by way of appa.area.com.

App B

Ship an HTTP request to host appb.area.com

You may view the app B content material by way of appb.area.com.

Conclusion

The article has described the Nginx configuration merely. Additional, arrange of two completely different apps utilizing two domains in addition to find out how to reload the Nginx proxy server. Whereas describing the promised procedures, now we have skipped the efficiency options and a number of other different settings. You may toggle them to settle nicely.

 

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